CALLE

Centre for Applied Linguistics & Language Education

Sounds of English: Affricates


Affricates – an affricate is a consonant which begins as a stop (plosive), characterized by a complete obstruction of the outgoing airstream by the articulators, a build up of air pressure in the mouth, and finally releases as a fricative, a sound produced by forcing air through a constricted space, which produces turbulence when the air is forced trough a smaller opening.  Depending on which parts of the vocal tract are used to constrict the airflow, that turbulence causes the sound produced to have a specific character (compare pita with pizza, the only difference is the release in /t/ and /ts/).  There are two types of affricate in English.  For an interactive example of each sound (including descriptive animation and video), click this link, then in the window that opens, click affricate, and select the appropriate sound.

/ts/  /dz/ lingua-alveolar affricates

lingua-alveolar (from lingua tongue and alveola the ridge just behind the front upper teeth) affricate is a sound which the flow of air out of the body is initially interrupted in the same manner as a lingua-alveolar stop /t/ or /d/, then immediately released in the same manner as a lingua-alveolar fricative /s/ or /z/,  constricted by touching the tongue to the alveolar ridge — the part of the roof of the mouth, just behind the upper front teeth, creating a narrow opening through which the air passes. English has two lingua-alveolar affricates — voiceless /ts/ as in pizza and its, and /dz/ which is voiced as in ads and adze.

/t∫/  /dʒ/  postalveolar affricates

postalveolar (from post- after and alveola the ridge just behind the front upper teeth) affricate is a sound which is a combination of a lingua-alveolar stop /t/ or /d/ and a lingua-palatal fricative /∫/ or /ʒ/.  Because a postalveolar afficate is a combination of two sounds with different points of articulation (in this case, the spot where the tip of the tongue contacts the top of the mouth), its point of articulation falls between that of its two component sounds.  In a lingua-alveolar stop, the tongue interrupts the flow of air by pressing against the alveolar ridge — the part of the roof of the mouth, just behind the upper front teeth. In a lingua-palatal fricative, the flow of air out of the body is constricted by very nearly touching the tongue to the hard palate — the part of the roof of the mouth, just behind the alveolar ridge, creating a narrow opening through which the air passes.  In a postalveolar affricate, the point of articulation for both the stop and fricative release occurs between these two positions, just behind the alveolar ridge but not quite on the hard palate.  English has two postalveolar affricates — voiceless /t∫/ as in cheese, catch, and ligature, and /dʒ/ which is voiced as in judge, magic, and jam.


Continue reading Part 3.4: Nasals, Liquids, & Glides

January 10, 2010 - Posted by | English Linguistics | , , , , ,

18 Comments »

  1. […] Affricates […]

    Pingback by Sounds of English: Introduction « CALLE Teacher's Blog | January 11, 2010 | Reply

  2. […] Affricates […]

    Pingback by Sounds of English « CALLE Teacher's Blog | January 11, 2010 | Reply

  3. […] generated)Sounds of English: Nasals, Liquids, & GlidesSounds of English: ArticulationSounds of English: AffricatesShare […]

    Pingback by Sounds of English: Fricatives « CALLE | August 24, 2010 | Reply

  4. […] Sounds of English: Affricates January 2010 3 comments […]

    Pingback by 2010 in review « CALLE | January 4, 2011 | Reply

  5. What about a fricative

    Comment by Enoch | December 6, 2011 | Reply

  6. thanks a bunch for the posting. the explanation here completely clear…
    it so helpful in my course…

    Comment by nisa | March 1, 2012 | Reply

  7. Everyone wants the best deal when it comes to buying a car.
    Many people are unaware of what is required of them if they are going
    to get that job done. Some people even think they
    got the best deal when they actually are mistaken.

    Consider the following helpful advice when learning more about finding the best deals.

    Comment by cars | May 19, 2013 | Reply

  8. Excellent blog here! Also your site loads up very fast!

    What host are you using? Can I get your affiliate link
    to your host? I wish my web site loaded up as fast as yours
    lol

    Comment by digiorno wyngz coupons | May 31, 2013 | Reply

  9. I’m not sure the place you are getting your information, but
    great topic. I needs to spend some time studying much more or figuring out more.
    Thanks for great info I used to be on the lookout for this info for my mission.

    Comment by Graciela | September 22, 2013 | Reply

  10. Plx i am in need of help……

    Comment by Alkaseem | June 8, 2015 | Reply

  11. How are affricates articulated?what are cleft sentences?

    Comment by Abhijit Chakraborty | September 21, 2015 | Reply

  12. How is lateral /l/ produced?

    Comment by Abhijit Chakraborty | September 21, 2015 | Reply

  13. jar is a words start with voiced affricate sound meanwhile
    char is words start with voiceless affricate sound

    Comment by galal mohsin salim | February 22, 2016 | Reply

  14. jar is a word starts with voiced affricate sound meanwhile
    char is word starts with voiceless affricate sound
    jar and char are words start with afficate sound

    Comment by galal mohsin salim | February 22, 2016 | Reply

  15. the place of the two words is post alveo
    the two words are sibilants

    Comment by galal mohsin salim | February 22, 2016 | Reply

  16. Hi there!
    Can someone please tell me how to post a question, I’m new here and I have no idea how to do that. I have a question about International Phonetic Alphabet.

    Comment by Edgar | August 10, 2016 | Reply

  17. I’m trying to figure out what ‘s this in Roman alphabet.
    ʔə ʤoʷk

    (ʔə ˈmɛ ɹə ˌkʰɪn): seʲ, wʌʦ jɹ̩ ʤɐːb?

    (ˈʔɪ̃ŋ gɫɪʃ mə̃n): ʔɐ̃͡ɪ mə kʰlaːk.

    (ʔə ˈmɛ ɹə ˌkʰɪn): jə mĩʲn jə goʷ tʰɪk-tʰɐk ʔɔɫ deʲ?

    ɐ̃͡ɪ mə kʰlaːk

    Comment by Edgar | August 10, 2016 | Reply


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 131 other followers

%d bloggers like this: